Monday, March 15, 2010

Radical Feminist Audre Lorde's Famous Essay: "The Master's Tools Will Never Dismantle the Master's House"

[graphic image of Audre Lorde is from here]

From Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches, The Crossing Press Feminist Series (1984)

I found a copy of it *here*.

The Master's Tools Will Never Dismantle the Master's House

by Audre Lorde

I agreed to take part in a New York University Institute for the Humanities conference a year ago, with the understanding that I would be commenting upon papers dealing with the role of difference within the lives of American women: difference of race, sexuality, class, and age. The absence of these considerations weakens any feminist discussion of the personal and the political.

It is a particular academic arrogance to assume any discussion of feminist theory without examining our many differences, and without a significant input from poor women, Black and Third World women, and lesbians. And yet, I stand here as a Black lesbian feminist, having been invited to comment within the only panel at this conference where the input of Black feminists and lesbians is represented. What this says about the vision of this conference is sad, in a country where racism, sexism, and homophobia are inseparable. To read this program is to assume that lesbian and Black women have nothing to say about existentialism, the erotic, women's culture and silence, developing feminist theory, or heterosexuality and power. And what does it mean in personal and political terms when even the two Black women who did present here were literally found at the last hour? What does it mean when the tools of a racist patriarchy are used to examine the fruits of that same patriarchy? It means that only the most narrow perimeters of change are possible and allowable.

The absence of any consideration of lesbian consciousness or the consciousness of Third World women leaves a serious gap within this conference and within the papers presented here. For example, in a paper on material relationships between women, I was conscious of an either/or model of nurturing which totally dismissed my knowledge as a Black lesbian. In this paper there was no examination of mutuality between women, no systems of shared support, no interdependence as exists between lesbians and women-identified women. Yet it is only in the patriarchal model of nurturance that women "who attempt to emancipate themselves pay perhaps too high a price for the results," as this paper states.

For women, the need and desire to nurture each other is not pathological but redemptive, and it is within that knowledge that our real power is rediscovered. It is this real connection which is so feared by a patriarchal world. Only within a patriarchal structure is maternity the only social power open to women.

Interdependency between women is the way to a freedom which allows the I to be, not in order to be used, but in order to be creative. This is a difference between the passive be and the active being.

Advocating the mere tolerance of difference between women is the grossest reformism. It is a total denial of the creative function of difference in our lives. Difference must be not merely tolerated, but seen as a fund of necessary polarities between which our creativity can spark like a dialectic. Only then does the necessity for interdependency become unthreatening. Only within that interdependency of different strengths, acknowledged and equal, can the power to seek new ways of being in the world generate, as well as the courage and sustenance to act where there are no charters.

Within the interdependence of mutual (nondominant) differences lies that security which enables us to descend into the chaos of knowledge and return with true visions of our future, along with the concomitant power to effect those changes which can bring that future into being. Difference is that raw and powerful connection from which our personal power is forged.

As women, we have been taught either to ignore our differences, or to view them as causes for separation and suspicion rather than as forces for change. Without community there is no liberation, only the most vulnerable and temporary armistice between an individual and her oppression. But community must not mean a shedding of our differences, nor the pathetic pretense that these differences do not exist.

Those of us who stand outside the circle of this society's definition of acceptable women; those of us who have been forged in the crucibles of difference -- those of us who are poor, who are lesbians, who are Black, who are older -- know that survival is not an academic skill. It is learning how to stand alone, unpopular and sometimes reviled, and how to make common cause with those others identified as outside the structures in order to define and seek a world in which we can all flourish. It is learning how to take our differences and make them strengths. For the master's tools will never dismantle the master's house. They may allow us temporarily to beat him at his own game, but they will never enable us to bring about genuine change. And this fact is only threatening to those women who still define the master's house as their only source of support.

Poor women and women of Color know there is a difference between the daily manifestations of marital slavery and prostitution because it is our daughters who line 42nd Street. If white American feminist theory need not deal with the differences between us, and the resulting difference in our oppressions, then how do you deal with the fact that the women who clean your houses and tend your children while you attend conferences on feminist theory are, for the most part, poor women and women of Color? What is the theory behind racist feminism?

In a world of possibility for us all, our personal visions help lay the groundwork for political action. The failure of academic feminists to recognize difference as a crucial strength is a failure to reach beyond the first patriarchal lesson. In our world, divide and conquer must become define and empower.

Why weren't other women of Color found to participate in this conference? Why were two phone calls to me considered a consultation? Am I the only possible source of names of Black feminists? And although the Black panelist's paper ends on an important and powerful connection of love between women, what about interracial cooperation between feminists who don't love each other?

In academic feminist circles, the answer to these questions is often, "We did not know who to ask." But that is the same evasion of responsibility, the same cop-out, that keeps Black women's art out of women's exhibitions, Black women's work out of most feminist publications except for the occasional "Special Third World Women's Issue," and Black women's texts off your reading lists. But as Adrienne Rich pointed out in a recent talk, white feminists have educated themselves about such an enormous amount over the past ten years, how come you haven't also educated yourselves about Black women and the differences between us -- white and Black -- when it is key to our survival as a movement?

Women of today are still being called upon to stretch across the gap of male ignorance and to educate men as to our existence and our needs. This is an old and primary tool of all oppressors to keep the oppressed occupied with the master's concerns. Now we hear that it is the task of women of Color to educate white women -- in the face of tremendous resistance -- as to our existence, our differences, our relative roles in our joint survival. This is a diversion of energies and a tragic repetition of racist patriarchal thought.

Simone de Beauvoir once said: "It is in the knowledge of the genuine conditions of our lives that we must draw our strength to live and our reasons for acting."

Racism and homophobia are real conditions of all our lives in this place and time. I urge each one of us here to reach down into that deep place of knowledge inside herself and touch that terror and loathing of any difference that lives there. See whose face it wears. Then the personal as the political can begin to illuminate all our choices.


  1. I liked this post very much as it has helped me a lot in my research and is quite interesting as well. Thank you for sharing this information with us.

    Essay On Purpose In Life

  2. You are welcome. But all thanks to Audre Lorde.

  3. "Racism and homophobia are real conditions of all our lives in this place and time. I urge each one of us here to reach down into that deep place of knowledge inside herself and touch that terror and loathing of any difference that lives there. See whose face it wears. Then the personal as the political can begin to illuminate all our choices."

    Her words are so beautiful and true. One of the most brilliant essays I've ever read. Thanks for posting it.

  4. You're certainly welcome, Dylan!

    And, of course, I agree it's brilliant. For an astounding book, see Sister Outsider, her collected speeches and essays.

    You won't be disappointed!

  5. Hi Julian:

    Thanks for the really cool info! I'll search for the book at my library. :)

    I've always liked her poetry. Here's one I especially like:


    The difference between poetry and rhetoric
    is being ready to kill
    instead of your children.

    I am trapped on a desert of raw gunshot wounds
    and a dead child dragging his shattered black
    face off the edge of my sleep
    blood from his punctured cheeks and shoulders
    is the only liquid for miles
    and my stomach
    churns at the imagined taste while
    my mouth splits into dry lips
    without loyalty or reason
    thirsting for the wetness of his blood
    as it sinks into the whiteness
    of the desert where I am lost
    without imagery or magic
    trying to make power out of hatred and destruction
    trying to heal my dying son with kisses
    only the sun will bleach his bones quicker.

    A policeman who shot down a ten year old in Queens
    stood over the boy with his cop shoes in childish blood
    and a voice said “Die you little motherfucker” and
    there are tapes to prove it. At his trial
    this policeman said in his own defense
    “I didn't notice the size nor nothing else
    only the color”. And
    there are tapes to prove that, too.

    Today that 37 year old white man
    with 13 years of police forcing
    was set free
    by eleven white men who said they were satisfied
    justice had been done
    and one Black Woman who said
    “They convinced me” meaning
    they had dragged her 4'10'' black Woman's frame
    over the hot coals
    of four centuries of white male approval
    until she let go
    the first real power she ever had
    and lined her own womb with cement
    to make a graveyard for our children.

    I have not been able to touch the destruction
    within me.
    But unless I learn to use
    the difference between poetry and rhetoric
    my power too will run corrupt as poisonous mold
    or lie limp and useless as an unconnected wire
    and one day I will take my teenaged plug
    and connect it to the nearest socket
    raping an 85 year old white woman
    who is somebody's mother
    and as I beat her senseless and set a torch to her bed
    a greek chorus will be singing in 3/4 time
    “Poor thing. She never hurt a soul. What beasts they are.”

    Audre Lorde

    (Found at

  6. I was wondering how familiar you are with her poetry, Dylan!

    I'm glad you know it and shared Audre Lorde's "Power" here.

  7. Now reading her: THE CANCER JOURNALS. Audre Lorde proves (without a shadow of a doubt) that the personal is always political. What a brilliant and brave writer she was. Too honest for most white male (and even female) scholars to embrace.

    It's good to know that Adrienne Rich saw the truth and power in Lorde's work. It's a start, and I'm grateful for that. Again, I am a fan of Lorde's poetry.

    I suspect that Adrienne Rich was able to appreciate the political and personal poems that Lorde so honestly gave the world before her too early death.

    And her CANCER JOURNALS are just as important as the poems. If you like Lorde's, poetry, then the journals will take you to another level of this remarkable woman's ability to write about what is most true and false about life.

  8. I remember the profound effect The Cancer Journals had on me. Empowerment to take one's health and health care into one's hands, against all manner of forces organized to dismiss and destroy oppressed people. Brava to her, again and again. Thank you for that comment, Dylan. As always.