[racist and sexistly biologically deterministic (or "essentialist") image is from here]
It remains my contention that testosterone (and anything else deemed strictly "biological") is not to blame for men's aggressive and otherwise violent behavior towards women. Part of why I believe this is that I've witnessed pre-adolescent boys without much "T" terrorising other children in grade school. The terrorisers were not the largest or strongest children and the terrorised were not the smallest or weakest. Far from it.
We know that in lesbian and gay relationships, it is not always or necessarily the larger person who is the chronic physical abuser or batterer. And one presumes that in at least some physically abusive lesbian and gay relationships, hormone levels, while variant, are more or less comparable.
Another reason I believe "hormones" don't cause raced and gendered violence is because whites terrorise and abuse people of color, and whites, as far as I know, are not known for having extraordinary high levels of T. Nor are the rich, but they do violence all the time to the poor. What those who commit systematic violence and other oppressive harm with impunity have in common is that they are atop a social hierarchy, and are not accountable to those "beneath them". Not levels of testosterone.
The mother of a female friend, when my friend was a girl, was beaten and otherwise abused by her mother repeatedly. The mother did so only until her daughter was large enough to stand up to her verbally, and then leave home. Did the mother's testosterone level go down when her daughter grew more verbally empowered? Or was she finally no maintained before?
In what follows, what is revealed is that people behave, in large part, the way they are expected to behave, by themselves or society. Men are expected to beat the women they proclaim to love only because the women are expected to accept being beaten, and rarely kill the fuckers who do the beating. If, hypothetically, the consequence of rape was that the raper died instantly upon threatening, terrorising, or violating a woman--each and every time, with no exceptions, we'd likely see a very quick "adaption of behavior" among men prone to rape women. In the article below, the issue isn't rape or battery. It is about what nontrans women who are given testosterone believe will be a consequence of being given it.