Friday, March 27, 2009

A Timeline of Anti-Jewish Persecution, primarily in Europe

[Image is from here.]

I expect that this list is heavily focused on what has happened to what are now termed "white" Jews. Racism lives everywhere there is race. Not on this list, for example, is the current persecution of Black Jews inside and outside of Israel by non-Black Jews and Christians. Absent from this list is also the particular ways Jewish women are persecuted and oppressed for being women and Jews.

But for those who don't know the abridged history of anti-Semitic persecution, here's a chart of it from this online source. I prefer the more historically specific "Era of Christian Domination (E.C.D.)" to rather innocuous and benign "Common Era (C.E.) but am grateful that the list isn't chronicled in terms of when Jesus of Narazeth lived.

Jewish Persecution | Timeline of Judaism | History of AntiSemitism
Lesser Known Highlights of Jewish International Relations In The Common Era (an Abbreviated sampling)

250 C.E. Canhage Expulsion
224 C.E. Italy Forced Conversion
325 C.E. Jerusalem Expulsion
351 C.E Persia Book Burning
357 C.E. Italy Property Confiscation
379 C.E. Milan Synagogue Burning
415 C.E. Alexandria Expulsion
418 C.E. Minorca Forced Conversion
469 C.E. Ipahan Holocaust
489 C.E. Antioch Synagogue Burning
506 C.E. Daphne Synagogue Burning
519 C.E. Ravenna Synagogue Burning
554 C.E. Diocese of Clement (France) Expulsion
561 C.E. Diocese of Uzes (France) Expulsion
582 C.E Merovingia Forced Conversion
612 C.E. Visigoth Spain Expulsion
628 C.E. Byzantium Forced Conversion
629 C.E. Merovingia Forced Conversion
633 C.E. Toledo Forced Conversion
638 C.E. Toledo Stake Burnings
642 C.E. Visigothic Empire Expulsion
653 C.E. Toledo Expulsion
681 C.E. Spain Forced Conversion
693 C.E. Toledo Jews Enslaved
722 C.E. Byzantium Judaism Outlawed
855 C.E. Italy Expulsion
876 C.E. Sens Expulsion
897 C.E. Narbonne Land Confiscation
945 C.E. Venice Ban on Sea Travel
1009 C.E. Orleans Massacre
1012 C.E. Rouen, Limoges & Rome Massacre
1012 C.E. Mayence Expulsion
1021 C.E. Rome Jews Burned Alive
1063 C.E. Spain Massacre
1095 C.E. Lorraine Massacre
1096 C.E. No. France & Germany 1/3 of Jewish Population Massacred
1096 C.E. Hungary Massacre
1096 C.E. Ralisbon Massacre
1099 C.E. Jerusalem Jews Burned Alive
1100 C.E. Kiev Pogrom
1140 C.E. Germany Massacres
1146 C.E. Rhine Valley Massacre
1147 C.E. Wurzburg Massacre
1147 C.E. Belitz (Germany) Jews Burned Alive
1147 C.E. Carenton, Ramenu & Sully (France) Massacres
1171 C.E. Blois Stake Burnings
1181 C.E. France Expulsion
1181 C.E. England Property Confiscation
1188 C.E. London & York Mob Attacks
1190 C.E. Norfolk Jews Burned Alive
1191 C.E. Bray (France) Jews Burned Alive
1195 C.E. France Property Confiscation
1209 C.E. Beziers Massacre
1212 C.E. Spain Rioting and blood bath against the Jews of Toledo.
1215 C.E. Rome Lateran Council of Rome decrees that Jews must wear the "badge of shame" in all Christian countries. Jews are denied all public sector employment, and are burdened with extra taxes.
1215 C.E. Toulouse (France) Mass Arrests
1218 C.E. England Jews Forced to Wear Badges
1231 C.E. Rome Inquisition Established
1236 C.E. France Forced Conversion/Massacre
1239 C.E. London Massacre & Property Confiscation
1240 C.E. Austria Property confiscation. Jews either imprisoned, converted, expelled, or burned.
1240 C.E. France Talmud Confiscated
1240 C.E. England Book Burning
1240 C.E. Spain Forced Conversion
1242 C.E. Paris Talmud Burned
1244 C.E. Oxford Mob Attacks
1255 C.E. England Blood libel in Lincoln results in the burning / torture of many Jews & public hangings.
1261 C.E. Canterbury Mob Attacks
1262 C.E. London Mob Attacks
1264 C.E. London Mob Attacks
1264 C.E. Germany Council of Vienna declares that all Jews must wear a "pointed dunce cap." Thousands murdered.
1267 C.E. Vienna Jews Forced to Wear Horned Hats
1270 C.E. Weissenberg, Magdeburg, Arnstadt, Coblenz, Singzig, and Erfurt
Jews Burned Alive
1270 C.E. England The libel of the "counterfeit coins" -
all Jewish men, women and children in England imprisoned. Hundreds are hung.
1276 C.E. Bavaria Expulsion
1278 C.E. Genoa (Spain) Mob Attacks
1279 C.E. Hungary & Poland The Council of Offon denies Jews the right to all civic positions. The Jews of Hungary & Poland are forced to wear the "red badge of shame."
1283 C.E. Mayence & Bacharach Mob Attacks
1285 C.E. Munich Jews Burned Alive
1290 C.E. England King Edward I issues an edict banishing all Jews from England. Many drowned.
1291 C.E. France The Jewish refugees from England are promptly expelled from France.
1292 C.E. Italy Forced conversions & expulsion of the Italian Jewish community.
1298 C.E. Germany The libel of the "Desecrated Host" is perpetrated against the Jews of Germany. Approximately 150 Jewish communities undergo forced conversion.
1298 C.E. Franconia, Bavaria & Austria Reindfel's Decree is propagated against the Jews of Franconia and Bavarai. Riots against these Jewish communities, as well as those in Austria, result in the massacre of 100,000 Jews over a six-month period.
1306 C.E. France Expulsion
1308 C.E. Strasbourg Jews Burned Alive
1320 C.E. Toulouse & Perpigon 120 Communities Massacred & Talmud Burned
1321 C.E. Teruel Public Executions
1328 C.E. Estella 5,000 Jews Slaughtered
1348 C.E. France & Spain Jews Burned Alive
1348 C.E. Switzerland Expulsion
1349 C.E. Worms, Strasbourg, Oppenheim, Mayence, Erfurt, Bavaria & Swabia Jews Burned Alive
1349 C.E. Heilbronn (Germany) Expulsion
1349 C.E. Hungary Expulsion
1354 C.E. Castile (Spain) 12,000 Jews Slaughtered
1368 C.E. Toledo 8,000 Jews Slaughtered
1370 C.E. Majorca., Penignon & Barcelona Mob Attack
1377 C.E. Huesca (Spain) Jews Burned Alive
1380 C.E. Paris Mob Attack
1384 C.E. Nordlingen Mass Murder
1388 C.E. Strasbourg Expulsion
1389 C.E. Prague Mass Slaughter & Book Burning
1391 C.E. Castille, Toledo, Madrid, Seville, Cordova, Cuenca & Barcelona
Forced Conversions & Mass Murder
1394 C.E. Germany Expulsion
1394 C.E. France Expulsion
1399 C.E. Posen (Poland) Jews Burned Alive
1400 C.E. Prague Stake Burnings
1407 C.E. Cracow Mob Attack
1415 C.E. Rome Talmud Confiscated
1422 C.E. Austria Jews Burned Alive
1422 C.E. Austria Expulsion
1424 C.E. Fribourg & Zurich Expulsion
1426 C.E. Cologne Expulsion
1431 C.E. Southern Germany Jews Burned Alive
1432 C.E. Savory Expulsion
1438 C.E. Mainz Expulsion
1439 C.E. Augsburg Expulsion
1449 C.E. Toledo Public Torture &. Burnings
1456 C.E. Bavaria Expulsion
1453 C.E. Franconia Expulsion
1453 C.E. Breslau Expulsion
1454 C.E. Wurzburg Expulsion
1463 C.E. Cracow Mob Attack
1473 C.E. Andalusia Mob Attack
1480 C.E. Venice Jews Burned Alive
1481 C.E. Seville Stake Burnings
1484 C.E. Cuidad Real, Guadalupe, Saragossa & Teruel
Jews Burned Alive
1485 C.E. Vincenza (Italy) Expulsion
1486 C.E. Toledo Jews Burned Alive
1488 C.E. Toledo Stake Burnings
1490 C.E. Toledo Public Executions
1491 C.E. Astorga Public Torture & Execution
1492 C.E. Spain Expulsion
1495 C.E. Lithuania Expulsion
1497 C.E. Portugal Expulsion
1499 C.E. Germany Expulsion
1506 C.E. Lisbon Mob Attack
1510 C.E. Berlin Public Torture & Execution
1514 C.E. Strasbourg Expulsion
1519 C.E. Regensburg Expulsion
1539 C.E. Cracow & Portugal Stake Burnings
1540 C.E. Naples Expulsion
1542 C.E. Bohemia Expulsion
1550 C.E. Genoa Expulsion
1551 C.E. Bavaria Expulsion
1555 C.E. Pesaro Expulsion
1556 C.E. Sokhachev (Poland) Public Torture & Execution
1559 C.E. Austria Expulsion
1561 C.E. Prague Expulsion
1567 C.E. Wurzburg Expulsion
1569 C.E. Papal States Expulsion
1571 C.E. Brandenburg Expulsion
1582 C.E. Netherlands Expulsion
1593 C.E. Brunswick Expulsion
1597 C.E. Cremona, Pavia & Lodi Expulsion
1614 C.E. Frankfort Expulsion
1615 C.E. Worms Expulsion
1619 C.E. Kiev Expulsion
1635 C.E. Vilna Mob Attack
1637 C.E. Cracow Public Torture & Execution
1647 C.E. Lisbon Jews Burned Alive
1648 C.E. Poland 1/3 of Jewry Slaughtered
1649 C.E. Ukraine Expulsion
1649 C.E. Hamburg Expulsion
1652 C.E. Lisbon Stake Burnings
1654 C.E. Little Russia Expulsion
1656 C.E. Lithuania Expulsion
1660 C.E. Seville Jews Burned Alive
1663 C.E Cracow Public Torture &. Execution
1664 C.E. Lemberg Mob Attack
1669 C.E. Oran (North Africa) Expulsion
1670 C.E. Vienna Expulsion
1671 C.E. Minsk Mob Attacks
1681 C.E. Vilna Mob Attacks
1682 C.E. Cracow Mob Attacks
1687 C.E. Posen Mob Attacks
1712 C.E. Sandomir Expulsion
1727 C.E. Russia Expulsion
1738 C.E. Wurtemburg Expulsion
1740 C.E. Liule Russia Expulsion
1744 C.E Bohemia Expulsion
1744 C.E. Livonia Expulsion
1745 C.E. Moravia Expulsion
1753 C.E. Kovad (Lithuania) Expulsion
1757 C.E. Kamenetz Talmud Burning
1761 C.E. Bordeaux Expulsion
1768 C.E. Kiev 3,000 Jews Slaughtered
1772 C.E. Russia Expulsion
1775 C.E. Warsaw Expulsion
1789 C.E. Alsace Expulsion
1801 C.E. Bucharest Mob Attack
1804 C.E. Russian Villages Expulsion
1808 C.E. Russian Countryside Expulsion
1815 C.E. Lubeck & Bremen Expulsion
1820 C.E. Bremes Expulsion
1843 C.E. Austria & Prussia Expulsion
1850 C.E. New York City 500 People, Led by Police, Attacked & Wrecked Jewish Synagogue
1862 C.E. Area under General Grant's Jurisdiction in the United States Expulsion
1866 C.E Galatz (Romania) Expulsion
1871 C.E. Odena Mob Attack
1887 C.E. Slovakia Mob Attacks
1897 C.E. Kantakuzenka (Russia) Mob Attacks
1898 C.E. Rennes (France) Mob Attack
1899 C.E. Nicholayev Mob Attack
1900 C.E. Konitz (Prussia) Mob Attack
1902 C.E. Poland Widespread Pogroms
1904 C.E. Manchuria, Kiev & Volhynia Widespread Pogroms
1905 C.E. Zhitomir (Yolhynia) Mob Attacks
1919 C.E Bavaria Expulsion
1915 C.E. Georgia (U.S.A.) Leo Frank Lynched
1919 C.E. Prague Wide Spread Pogroms
1920 C.E. Munich & Breslau Mob Attacks
1922 C.E. Boston, MA Lawrence Lowell, President of Harvard, calls for Quota Restrictions on Jewish Admission
1926 C.E. Uzbekistan Pogrom
1928 C.E. Hungary Widespread Anti-Semitic Riots on University Campuses
1929 C.E. Lemberg (Poland) Mob Attacks
1930 C.E. Berlin Mob Attack
1933 C.E. Bucharest Mob Attacks
1938-45 C.E. Europe Holocaust

Jewish persecution source:
P.E. Grosser & E.G. Halperin, Anti-Semitism: Causes and Effects, New York: Philosophical Library, 1978


Katlego Matsila said...

Yo, this is really fucked up.

Julian Real said...

Seriously, Katlego. Seriously.

AUJS said...

I'd like to make a point that in Judaism there is no colour. We do not refer to people as black Jews or White Jews... Just Jews.
The closest thing to this thing that you called black and white Jews are Sephardi and Ashkenazi Jews which is a cultural difference based on certain (and extremely slight) changes and differences in religious traditions (note not beliefs) that came as a result of living in different areas which in turn came as a result of the exile from Israel.
There has never been any prejudice between Sephardi and Ashkanazi Jews as once again, there is no colour in Judaism

Julian Real said...

Hello AUJS,

Could you locate yourself: on what continent do you live, and, if you wish to, please identify which country you grew up in and live in. I ask because in my country we do identify Jews and people of any other faith tradition separately from their racial and even ethnic identities. We also identify some Jews as Mizrahi, Sephardi, and Ashkenazi. But, in my experience, the traditions do differ, the "Jewish" languages often differ, and some of the beliefs differ too--there's no one belief system that comprises being Jewish, and as you know, I'm sure, there are plenty of non-religious and aetheistic Jews, who don't really believe in a god at all. And some white/Ashkenazi Jews are racist as hell--like plenty of non-Jewish whites but with less status than white Christians in Christian-dominated societies. Too many Ashkenazi Jews do discriminate against anyone who is Black and Brown, regardless of whether or not they are Jewish.

Does that not fit with your experience?

JusticeNeedsNoReason said...


Jews have for over 200 years discriminated against fellow Jews. It took various forms but was mainly snobbish prejudice by rich Jews against poor Jews, by professional Jews against blue collar workers Jews. Shools discriminated against and refused East European Jews the right to join their Synagogue. In some cases even Jewish Golf Clubs banned certain members because of their occupations or unfashionable home address. Many Litvaks from 1880 - 1920 started their own Synagogues for this reason. Snobbery is everywhere, and to be frank a rich, bumpkin Jew is maybe the worst snob of them all. Better still the Chassidiche Jews, meaning the Crown Heights lot, the frummest of the frum, won't allow Conservative Jews to join their shool's or marry their daughters or sons. Intermarriage is now 70%, so the Jewish faith is dying out on its own accord. The Synagogues are empty which means in large cities disused shools are now as common as disused cinemas. The Holocaust really did kill the Stetls, the community and the fabric of real Jewish life, a great shame. Planet Earth is going to miss the Jewish books, the Jewish great writers, the painters, the chess players, and the o'so true laughter at mans follies whilst seeking fame or happiness.

Julian Real said...

The timeline referred to mistakenly makes European Jewry the center and sole cultural location of all Jews. Jews are people from all parts of the world, are of all colors, not just European "white". And your comment seems to continue this bias, this prejudice, this racist assumption, that all Jews are European.

That said, Jews, like all other oppressed people, discriminate within our communities, generally to try and gain favors, advantages, and privileges afforded to the master oppressors: white male supremacist Christian Gentiles. Such favors and privileges are never secure, however and can be revoked at any time. It is a more solid and moral political strategy for even the most privileged Jews to organise with all other oppressed peoples against the master oppressors.

JusticeNeedsNoReason said...

Quote taken from Mr J Real post above:

"[to] gain favors, advantages, and privileges afforded to the master oppressors: white male supremacist Christian Gentiles. Such favors and privileges are never secure, however and can be revoked at any time. It is a more solid and moral political strategy for even the most privileged Jews to organise with all other oppressed peoples against the master oppressors".

Mr Real, I have little truck or sympathy with people like you who use words such as "white male supremacist Christian Gentiles' and who describes them as the 'master oppressors'. I live in England, that's in Europe, I am a European, the Nazi in case you have forgotten killed 6 million European Jews'. Admittedly there are Jews elsewhere in the world other than Europe, Britain, Canada, USA, and Australia, but just about all of them are descended from European Jews. And whats wrong with that I ask. Jews are racist, Jews do have color prejudices, I have heard Somali Jews called in a scornful manner swvarzty Jews and so have you, and again whats wrong with that. I have heard Jews calling others Jews all the names under the sun, and in case you don't know it maybe 500 to 1000+ Jews were murdered at the end of the war for being Nazi colloborator camp Capos acting against fellow Jews. There was even Ghetto Jewish Policemen working for the Nazis rounding up Jews to be killed. I recall the little girl of 7 who whispered to a Ghetto Policeman "Mr Policeman, I'm Jewish as well", even so he threw her on the Treblinka bound wagon just as if she was a Christian or Catholic , or just another nobody. She was a child for Gods sake and in a manner of speaking my daughter and I and the rest of the English speaking world are responsible for her care then, her welfare, and today preserving her memory!

Julian Real said...

To JusticeNeedsNoReason,

You write that most Jews are descended from Europeans. That's not even close to the truth. Most Jews are descended from Northern Africans, Africans from other regions of the continent, and people from what is termed "The Middle East" or Central Asia.

If you don't appreciate what is written here, please disregard it and move on. I'm not interested in engaging in on-going debates and disagreements with you.

JusticeNeedsNoReason said...

I for one think most Jews are from the area known today as Bulgaria, formerly Armenia. This is borne out by DNA testing, by comparing physical features and pigment, and by the fact this area eventually became part of Greater Russia. Jews from this area fled or traded on the Bulgaria to Leningrad road line and over a period of 500 years settled along it with detours into present day Poland and Lithuania. With the pogroms and the killing of the Tsar in 1880 you had the creation of the Russian Stetl banishment areas e.g Vilnus, Lublin and Kovno. If this is incorrect could you please put forward your views and I will ask my friend Rabbi Louis Brandt to join in by way of reply.

JusticeNeedsNoReason said...

For the avoidance of doubt I said most Jews are European, of European origin for all practical purposes, but concede these modern European Jews came predominately from Bulgaria and Old Armenia. It might well be that the Turkish tribes in that area carried out attacks that we know little about today, so they fled east towards Central Russia. Suffice to say most Jews I have met are of Russian / European Origin, and yes, I have been to Israel and met many Israeli Jews.

Julian Real said...

I do not seek a scientific explanation of the origin of Jews. We are a diverse, diasporic people from all corners of the Earth. As far as I am concerned, we all, as humans, come from Africa, including Jews.

As noted, I don't wish to debate you on points such as this. And I won't.

Be well.